Building Your Global Career

Having aspiration of working abroad one day, Katelyn Mistele attends a professional speaker event at Copenhagen Business School (Denmark) about setting yourself up for a global career. She learns about the pros and cons of having a globally mobile career, and shares her insights on her experience studying abroad and what she gained from being abroad.

Copenhagen Business School is like Fisher in the fact that many companies and speakers frequently visit the school to give talks and recruit. There was an individual who is currently work with Maersk, the largest shipping company in the world, but also worked with P&G with Gillette, who put on a presentation one day. I decided to attend as the message of the talk was marketing yourself and setting yourself up for a global career. 

The individual who was giving the talk has led a successful and extensive global career. He is from London but after working with P&G for a few years in London he made a jump to Switzerland. From that he changed companies and spent the next decade jumping between Singapore and London with Maersk. Today he sits in Denmark still working with Maersk and his career is still mobile and he will most likely make another career move soon. This background was so interesting to me because I have always heard about individuals being globally mobile with their career but this isn’t as common in the United States. Instead, we see intercontinental movement with jobs. The speaker proposed that the major contributing factor to his ability to be mobile in Europe is the European Union and how it is easier to be mobile for work here than it is across boarders in other parts of the world. 

He asked us to brain storm a list of questions regarding what we would ask if we were asked by a company to confirm that we are globally mobile. As a class we came up with questions regarding the length of the assignment, the preparation in cultural terms before the project, questions regarding the location itself, and the opportunities for development during the assignment and after the assignment. There are a lot of deciding factors that go into deciding if an individual wants a global career and its important to keep in mind aspects regarding preparation and development. In terms of preparation the speaker told us that small moves as opposed to big ones have more problems. For example a jump from England to France is harder to adjust to than a jump from England to Singapore. Another key factor to take into consideration is the development opportunities during the assignment and after the assignment. A lot of times with expatriation assignments there is high failure rates upon arrival back to ones home country as readjusting seems to be harder. The speaker told us that during his return from one of his projects his mentor told him to not talk about his experiences that much because people back at home really don’t care that much. He said it was so hard to keep his thoughts and experiences completely to himself but he said in the long run it was worth it and helped him to get back into to the English culture faster. 

This presentation was very interesting for me as working abroad or on abroad accounts is something I am definitely interested in looking into in the future. At a first glance I, as I am sure most other people would be, just think about the location. We all want to travel and work somewhere cool, but there are many important factors that contribute to what would make this a successful assignment and contribute to a successful global career. The speaker also suggested that if we have any inkling to go and lead a global career that we should. He said that the 70-20-10 model can be applied to working on international assignments as 70% of your learning in your career happens on the job and the best way to learn and grow in an international environment is to just take the job. The 20% is learning what happens with peers or mentors and the 10% is “classroom learning” which can happen in the class room or even on the internet in the form of training videos. All parts of this model apply to any assignment but the speaker was trying to point out that you learn the most from being on the job so if you want to grow your career internationally it makes the most sense to take international opportunities as they arise because that’s when you’ll learn and grow the most. 

He also mentioned how the environment of global employment is changing. There are now an increase in short term assignments which last less than two years and this is a positive as it is making people more mobile. However, there is a downside as customers do not like when people continuously rotate as it is harder to build long term relationships. Also companies are starting to now really look at the cost of expatriation as it is very expensive. So the question that is facing employees and businesses today is what is the balance? 

Personally, I hope that at some point in my career I have the opportunity to go on an expatriation assignment. After spending some time in Denmark, I have grown so much culturally and learned a lot. Only these international experiences can provide you with this personal growth. It is one thing to just read about a culture and learn about its nuances but you really do not reap all the benefits of cultural exposure and integration unless you go and live in the culture. I personally have become not only more mindful of my nature, but also have picked up some of the Danish cultural traits. For example, Jantelov is an integral part of Danish culture. At its core, Jantelov is the idea that everyone is equal and on the same level and the Danish peoples actions should be in accordance with this idea. It goes further to describe how if one fall the society will catch them and help them back up. After being here and living in this culture I definitely can see aspects of this part of their culture and I am hoping that I will be able to assimilate parts of it into my everyday life and bring this part of Danish culture with me back to my life in the United States. 

I strongly believe that cultural integration and sharing is something that I think will not only benefit myself and my career but could benefit a lot of individuals. As the speaker suggested 70% of learning happens on the job, and I think this can extend to study abroad or any cultural experience. It is important for myself to take advantage of these opportunities, and I hope that someday I will have the chance to go on an international assignment and further learn and mold my own cultural identity. 

Networking While Abroad

“I would highly recommend reaching out to business professionals wherever you go abroad.” says Megan Reardon who attended Singapore Management University. She gives tips and advice on how you can set up informational interviews with professionals abroad to take full advantage of expanding your network while abroad!

One of the top reasons that I chose to go to Singapore is because I am really interested in working abroad once I graduate. That being said, I was excited to start grabbing coffee with Singaporean business professionals. It was surprisingly easy to find people to meet with once in Singapore. There are four different ways I was able to connect with people:

1. LinkedIn. I was able to search my LinkedIn connections for graduates of Ohio State who lived in Singapore. I reached out to several people this way and was able to meet for coffee with a few people in the banking industry and the fashion industry. More so – they were all impressed that I took initiative to reach out that they were able to give good recommendations for places to search for internships and jobs in Singapore. One of my connections brought me out to eat with his whole family, so they would understand what native English sounds like!

2. Leveraging professors. Before I went to Singapore, I spoke with my professors at Ohio State about my goals. Several professors were able to connect me with their peers in Singapore, which shows the power of connections given how small Singapore is. As it turns out, one of my professors at Singapore Management University (SMU) received their PhD in Finance at Ohio State! It was interesting to be able to talk to him about the differences between Ohio State and SMU.

3. Past work experience. I knew that one of my past internships in Cleveland had a location in Singapore that operated their Asian business. Since I knew that I was going to Singapore when I interned with this company, I was able to talk with the people who did business in Singapore before I went abroad then meet them in person while in Singapore.

4. Family connections. Though I previously believed that my family had no connections in Singapore, I asked my dad to reach out to one of his work friends that lived there previously. They set me up with someone else, and before I knew it, I was talking to my cousin’s best friend’s older brother who happened to go to the same college as my dad and had a cousin that I was friends with at Ohio State. What a small world!

It was typically very informal when I met with the business people. I would usually ask that they pick the place where we would meet – this gave the professionals flexibility and gave me good recommendations regarding the “local favorites.” We would usually meet at a coffee shop, and the conversation would start pretty naturally given that we had already exchanged a few emails by that point. Some of my favorite conversation topics were:

1. Do you see significant growth opportunities in Singapore in regards to business as a whole?

2. Do you do any business with the U.S., and if so, what are the major differences that you see?

3. I would usually ask about their family, whether it be a simple, “Do you live with your family here?” or “How are your kids liking school here(primary school in Singapore is much different than in the U.S.)?”

4. Would you recommend working in Singapore?

I would highly recommend reaching out to business professionals wherever you go abroad. This gives you the chance to experience other cultures at a more personal level and determine more about the working culture to decide whether or not you want to work abroad.

Kakehashi Project 4: Try it and See

They visit the Japanese External Trade Organization (JETRO), an organization facilitating foreign direct investment opportunities in Japan, and OMRON, an electronic company creating job opportunities for people with disabilities. Both exposing them to the unique and interesting dynamic of doing business in Japan.

We didn’t have to board the bus until 9:30 a.m. on the fifth day, so we had a very long breakfast, complete with friendly gossip. 

We took a short bus ride to hear a speaker from the Japanese External Trade Organization (JETRO). JETRO is a non-profit organization that helps non-Japanese companies with foreign direct investment opportunities in Japan. This work includes assistance with visas, immigration, human resources, navigating the local markets, and other key functions. JETRO has provided assistance to companies in a diverse array of industries such as automotive, healthcare, manufacturing, retail, and technology. In the past, JETRO has provided assistance to major companies including Amazon, Tesla, and Johnson & Johnson. Our speaker, Mr. Yusuke Okano, talked about his time working for JETRO both in Japan and in their Chicago, Illinois office (one of six in the United States). The presentation wrapped up and we appointed Dennis to give Mr. Okano a gift from us. We then left and headed off to lunch.

Lecture on JETRO from Mr. Okano

Continuing on the ‘cook your own meal at a restaurant’ theme, lunch was a combination of cabbage, egg, and pork that we mixed together and cooked on a grill in the middle of our table. We were given glasses and told to fill up our glasses at a soft drink dispenser. The labels on the dispenser were written nearly exclusively in Japanese, so it quickly became a game of sampling each option to figure out what everything was, which exemplified most of our meals on the trip – we took on a ‘try it and see’ mentality as some of the foods we were eating had never entered our consciousness before arriving in Japan. Because every table had a hot grill going, the restaurant was steaming inside, so we ate as quickly as possible, so that we could go outside in the breeze. There was a pet store on the other side of the plaza that some of us went to see; in addition to the pets we were expecting such as dogs, rabbits, and fish, they had some other types of animals such as owls and mice. All of the dogs were behind glass, which made it quite tough to boop them on the nose.

We were each given a bowl of cabbage, pork, and a raw egg that we mixed and then cooked on the grill in front of us
Kevin, Christine Dawson, Dennis, and Chandler enjoying lunch together

After lunch, we were off to OMRON, a company that we didn’t know much about prior to our visit. Coming off of a big meal and crowding into a small, warm room for the presentation, we were initially concerned about our ability to listen (read: stay awake). This is why it took several seconds for us to really grasp the overall uniqueness of the OMRON mission; while several companies in the U.S. employed primarily people with disabilities, they were rarely considered successful from a purely business standpoint. Companies like Goodwill thrived mostly as a combination of altruism, donations and separate regulations for non-profits and charities.

OMRON, however, was different. They are a fully-functional, successful business that employees people with disabilities and, rather than work around the particular disabilities their employees were presented with, they worked with them. On the line, everyone had the same production requirements. OMRON was willing to go above and beyond in terms of finding ways to make that possible, but otherwise the employees were all considered equal in terms of both benefits and responsibilities.

Kevin thanking the OMRON representatives for their presentation

The tour emphasized what the presentation told us, with windows allowing a look onto the line where numbers tallied each employee’s count for the day. Specially-built tables allowed for both wheelchairs and static chairs to fit under the same way, allowing for an interchangeability between employees with and without disabilities that other companies don’t even try for. Mirrors at the bottom of staircases give full visibility of the hallway that a limited range of movement can sometimes prevent. Even the crosswalk between the office building and plant was unusual, playing a distinctive tune (unlike an ice cream truck) when it was safe to stand out from the general hubbub of the day. All of this played into our big takeaway from OMRON that a company can develop itself to fit the strengths and mitigate the struggles of its employees as opposed to the typical inverse structure of making employees fit a pre-existing job description and work environment. This idea isn’t just limited to employees with physical disabilities either; allowing employees to focus on their strengths and interests will ultimately lead to a more positive work experience. We hope to take this idea with us in the future and implement it in our current group work in the classroom as well as in our future careers.

After departing OMRON, we went to meet our host families for our home stay. We were split up into six groups with three or four people in each group. We grouped up, and each home stay family’s name was called out, so they could join their group, unlike a sorority big/little reveal. Dr. Prud’homme and Lorraine got a break from us for a night, and it got dusty parting from Miho. Ironically enough, some of the host families drove Daihatsu cars (read the blog post on the visit to Daihatsu), so we got to see what their automobiles were like on the inside (very roomy for a compact car, in our opinion). Experiences varied by group, so we’ll cut the blog for day three here and dive into our home stay experiences in separate blog posts. Arigatogozaimasu! Thank you!

Read the next post! Kakehashi Project 5: Ittekimasu or Sayonara?

Read about the home stays! Joe’s Home Stay /  Christine Dawson’s Home StayAustin and Chandler’s Home Stay

Or read from the start! Kakehashi Project 1: Pre-departure and Travel Day

Kakehashi Project 3: Operations, Onsens, and Aesthetics

The Kakehashi Project group moves on to their second day in Japan! This time in Oita, south west of Japan. There they were impressed by an automotive company, immersed in the culture through a tea ceremony and performance, and devoured the wonderful food the country offeres. At the end of the day, they learned the Japanese spirit of “ichi-go, ichi-e”, cherishing every encounter in our lives.

Day two after arriving in Tokyo, Japan, we were already in a new city on a new island. We flew to the southern island of Kyushu. Known for its hot springs and mountains, it was a whole new world compared to busy Tokyo. We got the chance to tour the facilities of a domestic car manufacturer, Daihatsu, and see what their processes were like.

Daihatsu takes great pride in making small, comfortable cars for Japan, a country where space and the ability to drive come at a premium. Additionally, they have some of the most eco-friendly automobile production plants in the country, which is a major point of pride for them. It offered a lot of perspective in regards to how to responsibly manufacturer goods.

The tour consisted of a presentation on the history of the company and their different business lines. Daihatsu is a 100% subsidiary of Toyota, and competes in three main automobile markets: small passenger cars, compact pickup trucks, and special purpose vehicles. We saw very few Toyotas on the road during our time in Japan, but we saw a considerable amount of Dsihatsu cars, so we concluded that Diahatsu was Toyota’s method of capturing the Japanese car market, which would be considered niche given the tastes and preferences towards compact vehicles.

After the presentation, we walked through one of their plants and observed work being done at various points on the assembly line. What we found to be very unique is that they produced several types of vehicles on the same assembly line; we watched as a seemingly random order of vehicles came through, with cars, trucks, and other vehicles mixed in with each other. Another thing that stood out to us was the positive energy or ‘vibe’ in the factory. The workers all seemed to be enthusiastic as they performed their jobs, and the factory was very well lit on the inside, which we thought to be completely different from typical US factories. Dr. Prud’homme was thoroughly impressed with the process efficiency (very candidly, it was the most excited any of us have ever seen her).

Taking in the Daihatsu presentation with graduate and PhD students from University of Kentucky. In this photo, a vending machine is visible in the back of the room, which sold toy model versions of their automobiles

At the conclusion of the tour, we boarded our bus, and our contact from Japan International Cooperation Center (JICE) told us that it is common practice in Japanese culture to wave at your guests as they depart until they can no longer see you. Sure enough, we watched our tour guides wave at our bus until we were well down the road and out of view.

In the afternoon, we visited a Japanese hot spring. Kozue, our program coordinator, had talked extensively in her orientation sessions about sentos (public baths) and onsens (hot springs); the general concept is to bathe publicly with other members of the same sex. Being college students, the vast majority of us are extremely body conscious, so the thought of public bathing prompted us to work furiously in the RPAC before the trip to shed some unwanted weight. Luckily, the hot spring we visited was just for dipping your feet in. Before taking the dip into the steaming water, we walked around the grounds at the facility, which was absolutely stunning. This was our first real chance to take in the scenery in Oita, so we were blown away by the beauty within the landscape.

Beppu onsen in Oita

The spring did have a strong smell of sulfur, which Judson found tough but bearable. We then all took a seat and put our feet in the water. It was very refreshing, and very hot. The onsen had a very calming effect, which provided us a nice break after a few days of hectic travel. Kozue had told us ahead of time that within the Japanese culture, bathing is used as a time of tranquility and reflection. Whether using a bath in a home, a sento, or an onsen, a large part of the experience involved sitting in water and being still. From our experience in the onsen, we were definitely able to get a glimpse into the soothing effects of this practice.

From left to right: Judson, Ahmed, Austin, Joe, Ethan, Kevin, Kelly, Chandler

We headed back into the city for a tea ceremony and cultural presentation. The tea ceremony consisted of drinking tea in a traditional tatami room in a ceremony conducted by a tea master and her assistants. Miho translated for the tea master as she talked about the spiritual aspect of tea in Japanese culture. She taught us the phrase Ichi-go Ichi-e, which means “once-in-a-lifetime” (literally, “one time, one meeting”) The meaning of this phrase is to enjoy your time spent with others and to really embrace the moment you share, and that in life, we must cherish every encounter, and that even one meeting with someone is priceless.

The Tea Master (center) with our group

After we finished drinking the tea, we were allowed to ask the tea master questions about the ceremony and her profession. Someone asked her what made her become a tea master and how long she had been a tea master for. As she responded in Japanese, Dennis and Kevin (both Japanese language learners) gasped and tried to hide wide smiles, so the rest of the group knew something good was coming; she had started training to become a tea master in her twenties, and she was now 84 years old. She didn’t look older than 60, so we were all shocked. Lewis, who is speculated to be over 6’3”, was determined to get a picture with the tea master, who was well under 4’0”.

The Tea Master and Lewis

We moved down the hall of the building we were to a small presentation room, where we enjoyed a traditional Japanese music and dance presentation. Before each song or dance, Miho would explain the cultural significance. We had a ‘laugh out loud’ moment when Miho explained what one of the dances was about and followed it up by saying “the dance doesn’t make much sense.”

From there, we split into two groups, with one group going to a seafood and vegetable buffet, and the other going to shabu shabu. Shabu shabu is a style of eating where pots of oil and soy sauce boil in the middle of the table and beef, pork, chicken, tofu, and vegetables are dropped in, cooked, and eaten. All of the Ohio State members sat together except for Ahmed, who squeezed in with some Kentucky PhD students and learned about their journeys through life. The buffet group reported it as being enjoyable, but the shabu shabu group had a great time being able to cook together and try new foods.

We returned back to the hotel at around 6:45 pm, so we had a good amount of time to ourselves that night. The majority of the group walked down the street to go shopping in a store called Trial, which is roughly comparable to a Walmart. While shopping, we found Miho, who had the same idea as us; she showed the group what the best items were to buy. From there, one group led by Erica went out looking for something to do, but returned unsuccessful. Another group gathered in one of the hotel rooms to talk and watch TV; a program about Canada was on, and even though we had only been in Japan for a couple days, it seemed extremely odd when the screen showed cars driving on the right side of the road.

The theme for Tuesday afternoon was definitely “Ichi-go, ichi-e”, as this opportunity has already been once in a lifetime and this phrase captures that. It is true that in life we never know what truly lies in the next day. That’s certainly true on this trip, but in living out ichi-go, ichi-e,the importance of cherishing every encounter in our lives is something that we carry with us from now on (certainly for the rest of our time in Japan).

As we close out another day in Japan, we wish you a good night, oyasuminasai.

Read the next post! Kakehashi Project 4: Try it and See

Or read from the start! Kakehashi Project 1: Pre-departure and Travel Day

Kakehashi Project 2: The Undergrads and The PhDs

The first day of adventures in Japan! The group met with the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to learn more about the Japanese economy and the countries characteristics. After a tasty lunch they visited the Imperial Palace and ended up with a great photo shot!

The first day started with a continental breakfast in the basement of our hotel. Austin arrived as soon as they opened, determined to try as much as possible and fill up for the day. The rest of the group was still either getting ready or sleeping, so he made friends with a group of students from Rutgers that was also participating in the Kakehashi Project.

After checking out of the hotel, we left for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). During our ride in, we finally got a chance to see the city during the daytime. We arrived at MOFA and were quickly ushered up to a large conference room. Our group from Fisher as well as students from Rutgers, University of Kentucky, and UNC Chapel Hill all gathered to be addressed by the ambassadors from Japan International Cooperation Center (JICE) on the nature of the program and what to expect. Immediately following the orientation, Mr. Ogiwara Hiroshi, an economist from MOFA, gave a presentation on the Japanese economy. He highlighted the current state of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TTP) as well as the trade relationship between the United States and Japan. Some of the PhD students from University of Kentucky asked him very insightful questions to promote a good discussion.

Sitting in our orientation session at MOFA

We departed MOFA to eat lunch at a local Tokyo restaurant. There were two long parallel tables for our group, and without any sort of direction or conversation, all of the males sat at one table and all of the females sat at the other, not unlike a middle-school dance. We were extremely impressed with the quality of the meal; Pat from OSU liked the Edamame beans so much that he ate them whole – shells included!

Ahmed and Pat getting ready to enjoy our first restaurant meal in Tokyo

After lunch, we attended a lecture from Professor Taniguchi Tomohiko, a professor at the Keio University Graduate School of System Design and Management (SDM), teaching international political economy and Japanese diplomacy, as well as a Special Adviser to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s Cabinet. This presentation was by far the most impactful on many of us.

As he tried to summarize Japan in 23 PowerPoint slides, what resonated with us was the way in which he divided Japan’s identity into three pillars: resilience, continuity, and maritime identity. As an example of Japan’s historical resilience, Professor Taniguchi alluded to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Japan and the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record keeping. This devastating natural disaster caused 15,895 casualties, left 6,156 injured, and 2,539 missing. According to the MOFA, 116 countries and 28 international organizations offered assistance, including the United States. Despite the damage, Japan persevered through the tragedy and carried on as a stronger nation.  Today, Japan remembers the date of the Tsunami, March 11th, in remembrance and in honor of those suffered.

Professor Taniguchi Tomohiko speaking on Japanese resilience, continuity, and maritime identity

The second pillar was continuity. Japan is well-known for bridging the gap between tradition and innovation. This is best exemplified by how Japan has the world’s two most longstanding operating hotels, the Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan and Hoshi Ryokan, which were founded in 705 and 718, respectively. In addition, Japan is home to the world’s oldest sake brewery, Sudo Honke, and the world’s oldest family business, Kongo Gumi, which has been building temples for 14 centuries. And yet, Japan has been on the forefront of innovation in major industries such as the technology and the automotive industry. Still, traditional Japanese culture has been passed on through generations and remains important to people in the modern day, such as their tea ceremonies (which we got to experience later in our trip, so keep reading our blogs).

The third pillar of maritime identity has shaped Japan’s economic positioning in the world. As it pertains to global trade, Japan’s importing and exporting operations are shaped by Japan’s maritime positioning. Furthermore, much of Japan’s most well known dietary delights are facilitated through Japan’s oceanic proximity.

We walked out of the presentation really starting to wrap our heads around what Japan really is. As Americans, we grapple with what America is and what it means to be an American; the lecture from Professor Taniguchi Tomohiko gave us a significant amount of insight into what Japan is and what it means to be Japanese. Fittingly, the next stop on our trip was the Imperial Palace. The landscape reminded us a lot of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., as there was open gravel walking space in the middle of the city. Most of the group stayed in front of the entrance and saw the guards changing out, and a small group of us walked around the park area.

Chandler thought that it would be a perfect photo opportunity with the sun at dusk and the city in the distance, so we quickly posed; the picture ended up looking like an early 2000s boy band album cover, which we were all extremely pleased with.

From left to right: Joe, Austin, Judson, Dennis, Evan, and Jacob

Miho rushed us off to the Tokyo airport for a domestic flight to Oita, a seaside prefecture on Kyushu, Japan’s southernmost island. We were told that dinner would be on our own in the airport, and we were handed ¥2000 each (the whole idea of the exchange rate hadn’t fully set in yet, so we initially thought we were rich. It was about $20). Erica decided to use her money to get a haircut in the airport, using Kevin as a translator. The flight to Oita was roughly 90 minutes, but it went very quickly as we all slept through it. After a quick bus ride to our hotel, we again went right to bed, beat from the day.

Read the next post! Kakehashi Project 3: Operations, Onsens, and Aesthetics

Or read from the start! Kakehashi Project 1: Pre-departure and Travel Day

The Substation

One of the classes Megan Reardon took at Singapore Management University (SMU) was “Arts and Culture Management”. She worked on a group project to research about The Substation, a arts hubs created under government policy, and through this leaned the difference in U.S. vs Singaporian business practices.

Singapore’s arts scene is not as vibrant as other countries. Since policy has always been focused on economic development, arts policy has often been deemed as a sort of forced social project. This is not a uniquely Singaporean problem – Hong Kong and Shanghai also face similar obstacles. One of the policies implemented was the Arts Housing Scheme, which refurbished vacant government buildings into arts hubs. The Substation was born out of the Arts Housing Scheme and is Singapore’s first independent contemporary arts center. Established in 1990 when the arts in Singapore were severely lagging, as a collaborative and pioneering experimental arts center. For one of my classes, Arts and Culture Management, my project team was assigned to analyze The Substation’s role in the emerging Singapore arts scene. Once the centerpiece of a bustling neighborhood, The Substation is now surrounded by new, upscale restaurants and shopping centers, and unable to financially compete with the surrounding businesses.

Image from Google Images

Part of our assignment was interviewing various people associated with the development of The Substation in its current form. Though no longer thriving, the mission is clear – to foster creativity and innovation in the Singapore community by providing programming, practice spaces, and courses to artists. For part of our project, we had to interview people closely connected with The Substation, whether it be previous artistic directors, the woman who gave The Substation its original building, or various artists who have used their facilities. These interviews gave me the opportunity to discover more about how business is done in Singapore.

The most interesting observation in comparing Singaporean business to how business is done in the U.S. is the level of formality. Though I had previously believed lunch meetings to be very casual, the lunch meeting with several of our interviewees was formal. There was no small talk, no exchange of pleasantries, but the ever looming feeling that we were there for business only.

Another difference in business practices was that our professor joined us on meetings. At first, I found this odd. It was as if our professor did not trust us enough to be able to conduct the meetings on our own. However, as we continued interviews, I eventually learned that my professor attended these meetings as a vessel to continue her own learning. She was just as curious about the answers to our questions as we were. The emphasis on continued learning is very strong in Singapore. Because it is such an economically advanced society, people are constantly trying to stay on the cusp of what is new and exciting. It’s why Singapore continues to thrive during these times.

Our Final Presentation Timeline